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MCQ's on Epidemiology for Staff Nurses and Medical Exams [Objective]

1.All of the following are true of odds ratio except: (A) It is an estimate of relative risk (B) It is the only measure of risk that ca...

1.All of the following are true of odds ratio except:
(A)It is an estimate of relative risk
(B)It is the only measure of risk that can be obtained directly form a case-control study
(C)It tends to be biased towards 1 (neither risk or protection at high rates of disease
(D)It is the ratio of incidence in exposed divided by incidence in nonexposed
(E)It can be calculated without data on rates (as in a case-control study


2.In a well designed clinical trial of treatment of ovarian cancer, remission rate at one year is similar for a new drug and usual care, The P-value is 0.4. This means that
(A)Both treatments are effective
(B)Neither treatment is effective
(C)The statistical power of this study is 60%
(D)The best estimate of treatment effect is 0,4
(E)It is not possible to decide on whether one treatment is better than the other using this information alone


3.A study was made of a clinician's ability to diagnose streptococcal throat infections in 149 patients coming to the emergency department in a certain hospital. The doctor's clinical impressions were compared to results of throat cultures or group A streptococcus. 37 patients had positive throat cultures and 27 of these were diagnosed by doctor as having strep throat. 112 patients had negative cultures, and the doctors diagnosed 35 of these as having strep throat. The specificity of the doctors' clinical judgment was:
(A)27/37
(B)77/112
(C)27/62
(D)10/87
(E)104/149


4.From the study in Question 3, the predictive value of the doctors' clinical judgment for streptococcal sore throat was:
(A)27/37
(B)77/112
(C)27/62
(D)10/87
(E)104/149


5.The mode of transport of an infectous agent through the environment to a susceptible host is called a:
(A)carrier
(B)reservoir
(C)vector
(D)vehicle


6.A longitudinal or prospective study is also referred to as a(n
(A)ecological study
(B)cross-sectional study
(C)cohort study
(D)observational study


7.The following drug trial is synonymous with the term "clinical trial"?
(A)Clinical pharmacology and toxicity
(B)Full scale Evaluation of Treatment
(C)Initial Clinical Investigation for Treatment Effect
(D)Post marketing Survelillance


8.When designing a study to determine whether there is a direct association between a particular exposure and an outcome, one should anticipate that potential alternative explanation(s may exist. Which of the following is a way to deal with confounding?
(A)Post-hoc blocking
(B)Randomization
(C)Screening
(D)Validation


9.Cedar Rivers is a community of 100,000 persons in central Iow(A) During the year of the floods (2008 there were 1,000 deaths from all causes. A study of all cases of tuberculosis found the number of deaths at 300 (200 males and 100 females. During 2007, there were only 60 deaths from tuberculosis, 50 of them males. The crude mortality rate for Cedar Rivers in 2008 was:
(A)300 per 100,000
(B)60 per 1,000
(C)10 per 1,000
(D)100 per 11000


10.What index does the research center use for patients using a tartar control toothpaste for 6 lower anterior teeth?
(A)Navy Plaque Index
(B)Volpe-Manhold Calculus Index
(C)OHI-S
(D)Turesky Modification of the Quigley Hein


11.In the DMF caries index for teeth and tooth surfaces, are 3rd molars included if they are decayed, missing, or filled?
(A)Yes
(B)No

12.An epidemic is a disease occurring over a wide geographic area and affecting a high proportion of the population.
(A)True
(B)False


13.What kind of decay is the DMFT & S signifying?
(A)Irreversible decay
(B)Reversible decay


14.If you were doing a plaque index with debri for a group of preschool children, which one would you use?

(A)def
(B)Pl I
(C)OHI-S
(D)PHP


15.What is the most accurate description of an agreement of findings by two or more examiners?

(A)Intraexaminer
(B)Intrarater
(C)Interexaminer
(D)Interpreter


16.An endemic is an occurrence of disease clealy in excess of normal expectancy.

(A)True
(B)False


17.The "e" in the def index stands for indicated for extraction. If a patient has teeth indicated for extraction for orthodontics, are they included in this index?

(A)Yes
(B)No


18.Which index would you use for a group of elderly patients in a nursing home?

(A)Plaque Index
(B)Patient Hygiene Performance
(C)Gingival Index
(D)Root Caries Index


19.In measuring the reliability of a measurement, an intraexaminer or intrarater reliability is consistency of findings by one examiner with those previously recorded by the same examiner.

(A)True
(B)False


20.Which index uses the WHO probe to calculate scores?

(A)Turesky
(B)Eastman Interdental Bleeding Index
(C)Sulcus Bleeding Index
(D)Periodontal Screening and Recording Index


21.Which index is measured with bleeding on probing?

(A)Gingival Index
(B)Sulcus Bleeding Index
(C)Gingival Bleeding Index
(D)Eastman Interdental Bleeding Index


22.Which index uses a stimudent to measure papillary bleeding?

(A)Sulcus Bleeding Index
(B)Gingival Bleeding Index
(C)Eastman Interdental Bleeding Index
(D)Russel's Periodontal Index


23.Oral epidemiology is the study of disease and health in populations.

(A)True (Correct Answer
(B)False


24.Which one does not indicate an asterisk on WHO probing on the Periodontal Screening & Recording Index?

(A)indicated for extraction
(B)mobility
(C)marked recession
(D)mucogingival involvement


25.The gingival indexes are reversible, just like the disease itself.

(A)True
(B)False


26.What is the agent when studying oral epidemiology?

(A)Host
(B)Environment
(C)Disease
(D)Population


27.The Greek word "edemos" means what?

(A)Native
(B)Epidemiology
(C)People
(D)All


28.Morbidity is the rate of disease or proportion of diseased persons in a geographic are(A)

(A)True
(B)False


29.Mortality is the proportion of people who live from a disease to the population of a geographic area for a period of tim(E)

(A)True
(B)False


30.A count is a percentage method to measure oral diseas(E)

(A)True
(B)False


31.Diagnosis of caries includes what criteria of measurement?

(A)Lost of at least 5 mm of tooth structure at enamel surface
(B)0.5mm
(C).005mm
(D).05mm


32.Morbidity is also known as the death rate in a population.

(A)True
(B)False


33.The "S" in DMFS stands for what?

(A)Sealants
(B)Surfaces
(C)Sulcus Depth
(D)Standard


34.The "M" in DMFT stands for missing for what reason?

(A)Congenitally missing teeth
(B)Indicated for Extraction due to Caries
(C)Indicated for Extraction for Ortho
(D)Deciduous teeth exfoliated


35.Deciduous teeth indexes (def can also be used to detect teeth and also surfaces with decay on deciduous teeth.

(A)True
(B)False


36.A DMFT & S index can calculate the indication of the # of teeth at risk for decay.

(A)True
(B)False


37.What is the MOST COMMONLY used index to score plaque?

(A)OHI-S Oral Hygiene Simplified
(B)PI I Plaque Index
(C)Turesky Modification of the Quigley Hein
(D)Plaque Control Record


38.O'Leary's Plaque Index is good for calculating plaque accumulation for a group of peopl(E)

(A)True
(B)False


39.The OHI-S (Oral Hygiene Index Simplified measures supra and subgingival calculus.

(A)True
(B)False


40.How many surfaces are used in measuring the Patient Hygiene Performance (PHP index)?

(A)4
(B)5
(C)6
(D)7


41.The PHP and OHI-S both use the 6 Ramjford teeth to calculate scores.

(A)True
(B)False


42.Which index do you use disclosing solution on the patient, but do not rinse?

(A)PHP
(B)OHI-S
(C)O'Leary's
(D)Plaque Control Record


43.The gingival index is measured by inflammation and bleeding on probing.

(A)True
(B)False


44.The PHP measures plaque and debri on tooth surfaces.

(A)True
(B)False


45.The GI Gingival Index is also called what?

(A)Loe and Silness
(B)Volpe Manhold
(C)O'Leary's
(D)Eastman's


46.The OHI-S Simplified Oral Hygiene Index measures what?

(A)Plaque and Debri on tooth surface
(B)Thickness of Plaque on tooth surface
(C)Presence of Plaque on tooth surface
(D)Existing Plaque and Calculus on tooth surface


47.The Periodontal Index (Russel's is no longer used because gingivitis and periodontitis are separate diseases.

(A)True
(B)False


48.What are the Ramjford Teeth?

(A)3, 8, 14, 19, 24, 30
(B)2, 3, 14, 19, 24, 30
(C)3, 9, 12, 19, 25, 28
(D)3, 8, 12, 15, 30, 31


49.The Community Periodontal Index of Treatment needs measures teeth in sextants.

(A)True
(B)False


50.The CPITN is the most common index used for periodontal screenings.

(A)True
(B)False


51.Bleeding indexes indicate a 0 for no bleeding and a 1 for bleeding.

(A)True
(B)False


52.What is the most common index for plaque in clinical research trials?

(A)Volpe Manhold
(B)PI I
(C)O'Leary's
(D)Turesky Modification of the Quigley Hein


53.In dental fluorosis the enamel is strong, but discolore(D)

(A)True
(B)False


54.Less than 50% of surfaces covered would be what category of Dean's Fluorosis?

(A)Questionable
(B)Very Mild
(C)Mild
(D)Moderate


55.Characteristics of dental fluorosis includes all of the following EXCEPT:

(A)opacities concentrated in center of tooth
(B)bilateral occurrences
(C)severity on posterior teeth
(D)usually near cusp tips


56.The range for Dean's Fluorosis Index is what?

(A)0-5
(B)0-3
(C)0-4
(D)0-7


57.A score of 3 on Dean's Fluorosis Index would indicate what?

(A)Very Mild
(B)Mild
(C)Moderate
(D)Severe


58.Which index out of all discussed in the most sensitive indicating it has the longest range of scoring?

(A)Dean's Fluorosis
(B)Thylstrup-Fejerskov
(C)TSIF
(D)OHI-S


59.Fluorosis can typically occur on a single tooth.

(A)True
(B)False


60.Brown stain starts coming into play on what level of Dean's Fluorosis?

(A)Very Mild
(B)Mild
(C)Moderate
(D)Severe


61.Pitting occurs on what level of fluorosis?

(A)Very Mild
(B)Mild
(C)Moderate
(D)Severe


62.Teeth are dried to detect fluorosis in Thylstrup-Fejerskov and TSIF.

(A)True
(B)False


63.In the Navy Plaque Index, a Pocket Score of 8 means what?

(A)depths of 1-3mm
(B)depths of 3-5mm
(C)depths of 8mm+
(D)depths of 5mm+


64.At what level of TSIF (Tooth Surface Index of Fluorosis does pitting start to occur?

(A)4
(B)5
(C)6
(D)7


65.At what level does staining occur on the TSIF?

(A)2
(B)3
(C)4
(D)5


66.Oral Cancer cases are more commonly found in African Americans.

(A)True
(B)False


67.A gingival score of 2 on the Navy Plaque Index indicates what?

(A)Gingival Tissue normal and tight
(B)Inflammation completely surrounding tooth
(C)Slight enlargement or blunting of papilla
(D)Inflammatory changes are present, but not do completely encircle tooth.


68.The Pl I measures what?

(A)Thickness of plaque
(B)Presence of plaque
(C)Existing plaque and calculus
(D)Plaque and debri on tooth surface


69.The Simplified Oral Hygiene Index uses disclosing solution and measures plaque only.

(A)True
(B)False


70.An excellent score on the Plaque Index would be what?

(A)0.5
(B)10%
(C)100%
(D)3


71.Patient Hygiene Performance uses the Ramjford teeth.

(A)True
(B)False


72.A score of 2 on the Patient Hygiene Performance Index would indicate what kind of score?

(A)Excellent
(B)Good
(C)Fair
(D)Poor


73.A Code 4 on the Loss of Attachment Index indicates what?

(A)5.5mm+ LOA
(B)4mm+ LOA
(C)9-11mm LOA
(D)12mm+ LOA


74.What is the only index that measures attachment loss?

(A)Periodontal Index
(B)Periodontal Disease Index
(C)CPI
(D)LPA


75.A score of 3 on the Turesky Modification indicates what?

(A)Cervical plaque only
(B)Less than 2/3 of the tooth covered
(C)2/3+
(D)A band of plaque

76.The Index of Periodontal Screening and Recording is best described at measuring what?

(A)Attachment Loss
(B)State of Perio Health
(C)Perio Treatment Needs
(D)Pockets, Calculus, and Bleeding


77.A Code 4 on the CPITN indicates what?

(A)Oral Hygiene Instruction
(B)Supra/Subgingival Calculus w/ defective restorations
(C)4-5mm pockets
(D)6mm+ pockets


78.How many teeth per sextant are calculated on the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN?

(A)1
(B)2
(C)3
(D)4


79.The Turesky Modification of the Quigley Hein has a range of scores of what?

(A)0-5
(B)0-7
(C)0-8
(D)0%-100%


80.A Code 4 on the Periodontal Screening and Recording Index indicates what?

(A)Supragingival calculus and defective margins
(B)Black on probe partly visible
(C)Black on probe completely disappears
(D)Black visible on probe and bleeding occurs


81.A score of 1 on the Gingival Index would indicate what kind of results?

(A)Excellent
(B)Good
(C)Fair
(D)Poor


82.Describe the disadvantages of the case control study

(A)A cohort is different because an entire cohort of exposed individuals is examine(D) A case study makes use of limited number of cases and controls who usually do not represent an entire cohort of exposed individuals.
(B)the measurement of exposure may be inaccurat(E) Representativeness of cases and controls may be unknown and may provide indirect estimates of risk. The temporal relationship between exposure factor and outcome cannot always be determine(D)
(C)For an observational designed study, the observer does not have control over the exposure factor. Mostly, cannot assign subjects by random to certain study conditions. For an experimentally designed study the observer can control who is exposed to certain factors and is able to assign subjects by random to certain study groups.


83.Describe the uses of analytic studies

(A)They help lead to the prevention of disease, create quantitative evaluations of intervention programs as well as determine safe and effective new drugs, and other procedures.
(B)This is something that describes the negative because you cannot always take the findings from group data and apply it to individuals.
(C)the units of analysis are groups. This can be referred to as an Ecological Comparison Study.


84.Identify an example of a case control study

(A)are used very commonly in environmental epidemiologic research. An example may be possible health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields.
(B)Allowance of the direct observation of risk. The exposure factor is well defined and can study exposures that are uncommon in the population. The temporal relationship between factor and outcome is known.
(C)the units of analysis are groups. This can be referred to as an Ecological Comparison Study.


85.Describe the advantages of the case control study

(A)The ecologic fallacy and imprecise measurement of exposur(E)
(B)it can be used to study conditions of low prevalenc(E) The procedure is mostly quick and easy to complete, and is inexpensiv(E) Lastly, the number subjects needed are smaller.
(C)Refers to the difference between the incidence rate of a disease in the exposed group and the incidence rate in the non-exposed group. Attributable risk is the difference between two incidence rates.


86.Explain the ecologic fallacy

(A)This is something that describes the negative because you cannot always take the findings from group data and apply it to individuals.
(B)Conduct the program several times in a variety of settings with a variety of participants.
(C)This refers to the adoption of policies, laws, and programs that are supported by empirical dat(A) One of the most reliable forms of evidence will come from randomized controlled trials.


87.Contrast the 2 categories of analytic studies

(A)For an observational designed study, the observer does not have control over the exposure factor. Mostly, cannot assign subjects by random to certain study conditions. For an experimentally designed study the observer can control who is exposed to certain factors and is able to assign subjects by random to certain study groups.
(B)This test can be used to test between two medical tests themselves. Such as HIV blood test vs the HIV swab test. Which one is most efficient and yields the best results.
(C)This is the association between two variables, the exposure and the outcome, and are measured at the group level.


88.Describe the ecologic correlation

(A)It is the best because if the sensitivity test correctly identifies all potential cases as either negative or positiv(E)
(B)A clinical trial refers to a research activity that involves the administration of a test regimen to humans to evaluate its efficacy and safety.
(C)This is the association between two variables, the exposure and the outcome, and are measured at the group level.


89.Explain the ecologic study

(A)They help lead to the prevention of disease, create quantitative evaluations of intervention programs as well as determine safe and effective new drugs, and other procedures.
(B)the units of analysis are groups. This can be referred to as an Ecological Comparison Study.
(C)This is beneficial because an association can be found between exposure rates and disease rates during the same time perio(D)


90.Describe the drawbacks of the ecologic study

(A)are used very commonly in environmental epidemiologic research. An example may be possible health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields.
(B)Mass screening is defined as the standards of care, anyone that could at risks should be screened for exposur(E)
(C)The ecologic fallacy and imprecise measurement of exposur(E)


91.Describe the benefits of the ecologic study

(A)the measurement of exposure may be inaccurat(E) Representativeness of cases and controls may be unknown and may provide indirect estimates of risk. The temporal relationship between exposure factor and outcome cannot always be determine(D)
(B)This is beneficial because an association can be found between exposure rates and disease rates during the same time perio(D)
(C)The predictive value is the proportion of people screened positive by a test and actually have the disease, this is the + valu(E)


92.Explain the population risk difference

(A)This is the difference between the rate of disease in the nonexposed segment of the population and the overall rate in the population.
(B)is designed to test preventive measures
(C)These are a form of intervention studies, two types are randomized controlled trials and quasiexperiments


93.Explain experimental studies

(A)This is the difference between the rate of disease in the nonexposed segment of the population and the overall rate in the population.
(B)These are a form of intervention studies, two types are randomized controlled trials and quasiexperiments
(C)is designed to test preventive measures


94.Define Prophylactic trials

(A)evaluates new treatment methods
(B)involves the administration of a test regimen to humans to evaluate its efficacy and safety.
(C)is designed to test preventive measures


95.Define Therapeutic trials

(A)is designed to test preventive measures
(B)evaluates new treatment methods
(C)involves the administration of a test regimen to humans to evaluate its efficacy and safety.


96.Define Clinical trials

(A)involves the administration of a test regimen to humans to evaluate its efficacy and safety. (Correct Answer
(B)is designed to test preventive measures
(C)evaluates new treatment methods


97.What are randomized control trials

(A)evaluates new treatment methods
(B)are an experiment in which subjects in a population are randomly allocated into groups, usually called study and control groups.
(C)involves the administration of a test regimen to humans to evaluate its efficacy and safety.


98.What are quasi-experimental designs

(A)When sensitivity tests correctly identify all potential cases as either negative or positive
(B)Describes when a definitive diagnosis that has been determined by biopsy, surgery, autopsy or other method and has been accepted as the standar(D)
(C)Where the investigator manipulates the study factor but does not assign individual subjects randomly to the exposed and non-exposed groups.


99.What is the gold standard for research designs

(A)Describes when a definitive diagnosis that has been determined by biopsy, surgery, autopsy or other method and has been accepted as the standar(D)
(B)Where the investigator manipulates the study factor but does not assign individual subjects randomly to the exposed and non-exposed groups.
(C)When sensitivity tests correctly identify all potential cases as either negative or positive


100.Why is the gold standard considered the best

(A)It helps to generalize the study to the population
(B)The standard will help to conclude that the results were true
(C)When sensitivity tests correctly identify all potential cases as either negative or positive


110.What is external validity

(A)This is the generalizing of the study to the population
(B)Was the conclusion true? It is the extent to which you can believe your results
(C)It is the third variable that relates to the exposure and the outcome


111.What is internal validity

(A)Was the conclusion true? It is the extent to which you can believe your results
(B)This is the generalizing of the study to the population
(C)It is the third variable that relates to the exposure and the outcome


112.Environmental epidemiology is the study of disease and the conditions linked to indoor factors

(A)True
(B)False (Correct Answer


113.As they relate to environmental characteristics, what is the physical

(A)plants and animals that can act as reservoirs
(B)the environment that houses the agent
(C)overcrowding usually due to economic issues

114.Physical Dating Epidemiology is

(A)the measurement of media use and video games
(B)performed by monitoring levels of excreted drugs to get a measure of drug use
(C)how often and under what circumstances are people being abused
(D)investigate public health problems caused by intentional acts


115.Describe sensitivity

(A)the ability of a test to correctly identify all individuals who have been screened and actually have the disease
(B)This is the ability of a test to identify only those non diseased individuals who actually do not have the disease
(C)the proportion of people screened positive by a test and actually have the disease, this is the + value


116.The human genome project was performed by the NIH, and discovered all the genes of DNA

(A)True
(B)False


117.In 2002 what percentage of high schoolers were found to be smokers

(A)28%
(B)22%
(C)18%


118.As it relates to environmental characteristics, what is climatology

(A)an environment where disease spreads the quickest
(B)overcrowding usually due to economic issues
(C)plants and animals that can act as reservoirs


119.Contributing factor to an illness is defined as

(A)the occurrence of mental disorders
(B)A co-morbidity in the form of a psychiatric disease
(C)the contributing factors of sexual disease


120.An indirect mean of transmission may be anything other than

(A)Person to Animal
(B)Person to Person
(C)Object to Person


121.Define active immunity

(A)Immunity gained from a person to person transaction
(B)The development of immunity from previous exposure to an agent before a vaccine or natural infection
(C)Resistance of the entire community because of the people immunity within the community


122.Herd immunity is...

(A)Immunity gained from a person to person transaction
(B)Acquired immunity from previous exposure to an agent before a vaccine or natural infection
(C)Resistance of the entire community because of the people immunity within the community


123.Screen based epidemiology is

(A)how often and under what circumstances are people being abused
(B)the measurement of media use and video games
(C)investigate public health problems caused by intentional acts
(D)performed by monitoring levels of excreted drugs to get a measure of drug use


124.The attack rate is calculated by# Ill/(Ill + Well multiplied by 100

(A)True
(B)False


125.The equation for Sensitivity is this: A/(A+C

(A)True
(B)False


126.Epidemiologists have found that accidents can be avoided and are predictable

(A)True
(B)False


127.The equation for Specificity is

(A)C/(B+D
(B)D/(B+C
(C)A/(B+D


128.Define passive immunity

(A)Acquired immunity from previous exposure to an agent before a vaccine or natural infection
(B)Resistance of the entire community because of the people immunity within the community
(C)Immunity gained from a person to person transaction


129.The fifth most frequent cause of mortality and leading causes of injury related deaths are

(A)Smoking
(B)Motor vehicle related, fire arm, or poisoning
(C)Flying


130.The traditional black box epidemiology is defined as

(A)the measurement of media use and video games
(B)how much a plane can go for without crashing
(C)an uncovered association between risk and disease without knowing why

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