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[Objective] MCQ's on Histology for Staff Nurses and Medical Exams

1. Within the cell, DNA is found in the nucleus. Which of he other structures within the cell listed below normally contains DNA as well?...

1. Within the cell, DNA is found in the nucleus. Which of he other structures within the cell listed below normally contains DNA as well?

A. perioxisome
B. mitochondrion
C. Golgi Apparatus
D. smooth ER
E. none of the above


2. Steroid synthesis occurs within which of the following structures?

A. peroxisome
B. mitochondrion
C. golgi apparatus
D. smooth ER
E. none of the above


3. During catabolic activity, the potential for oxidative insult can be considerable.  Which of the following structures within the cell functions primarily to reduce this potential insult?

A. peroxisome
B. mitochondrion
C. golgi apparatus
D. smooth ER
E. none of the above


4. Which of these structures is responsible for the production of protein?

A. peroxisome
B. mitochondrion
C. Golgi Apparatus
D. smooth ER
E. none of the above


5. Of the following cellular modifications associated with epithelia, which provides a morphological barrier between adjacent cells?

A. glycocalyx
B. macula adherens
C. zonula adhernens
D. nexus
E. zonula occuldens


6. Within the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, this structure consists of small fibers that normally remain unbundled and froms a useful enviornment for cells of defense.

A. Collagen type I
B. Collagen type II
C. Collagen type III
D. Collagen type IV
E. elastic fiber


7. The structure (fiber) and environment described in the previous question mostly occurs in:

A. loose connective tissue
B. dense irregular connective tissue
C. dense regular connective tissue
D. cartilage
E. bone


8. Among the defending cells of connective tissue, the one that forms antibodies and provieds humoral immunity is the

A. T Lymphocyte
B. plasma cells
C. mast cell
D. histiocyte
E. none of the above


9. Antibodies known as IgE become attached to this cells surfaces as specific receptors with in there promotes the allergic response.

A. melanocyte
B. fibrocyte
C. mast cell
D. macrophage
E. B Lymphocyte


10. The yellow coloration sometimes associated with adult fat is due to the presence of numerous lipid droplets.

A. true
B. false


11. Cement lines are regularly formed in

A. cancellous bone
B. osteonal bone
C. trabecular bone
D. immature bone
E. none of the above


12. The length of the long bone is primarily dye to the interstitial growth of the cartilaginous plate.

A. True
B. False


13. Of the extracellular matrices in following tissues, which would most likely have collagen type II?

A. bone
B. fibrocartilage
C. dense irregular connective tissue
D. dense regular connective tissue
E. hyaline cartilage


14. What is the function of hyaline cartiledge.

A. to protect and support the body and assist in motion
B. to store lipid
C. to transport a variety of substances
D. to protect and support organs


15. What is the function of adipose tissue

A. to protect and support the body and assist in motion
B. to store lipid and cushion organs
C. to transport a variety of substances
D. to protect and support organs


16. What is the function of blood?

A. to store lipid and cushion organs
B. to protect and support organs
C. to transport a variety of substances
D. to protect and support the body and assist in motion


17. Skeletal muscle creates heat.

A. True
B. False


18. The function of smooth muscle is to

A. create heat
B. propel blood into the circulatory system
C. propel food through the GI tract
D. cushion organs


19. What are the three types of epithelial cell junctions

A. Tight, Gap, Macula Adherens
B. Macula Adherens, Junctions, Gap
C. Gap, Loose, Tight


20. What are the 4 types of tissues found in the Body?

A. Blood, Nerve, Epithelial, Skeletal
B. Epihelial, Nerve, Muscle, Bone
C. Epithelial, Nerve, Connective, Muscle
D. Connective, Bone, Skin, Blood


21. This type of Epithelim cell has one layer and flat like eggs

A. Stratified Cuboidal
B. Simple Cuboidal
C. Simple Columnar
D. Simple Squamous


22. What is this type of epithelial cell? Location-Glands, ducts; portions of kidey tubules; thyroid glands Function-Limited protection, secretion, absorption

A. Simple Cuboidal
B. Simple Squamous
C. Simple Columnar
D. Stratified Cuboidal


23. This type of epithelial tissue lines the nasal cavity, trachea and bronchi

A. Transitional Epithelium
B. Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium
C. Stratified Squamous Epithelium
D. Stratified Columnar Epithelium

24. This type of tissue covers exposed surfaces, lines internal passageways & chambers, and forms glands

A. Skin
B. Connective Tissue
C. Epithelial Tissue
D. Nerve Tissue


25. Connexins are the proteins found in which plasma membrane specialisation?

A. Desmosomes
B. Gap Junctions
C. Microvilli
D. Tight Junctions


26. Histologically, the ascending colon, the transverse colon and the descending colon are indistinguishable from one another.

A. True
B. False


27. Which of the following is NOT primarily composed of connective tissue?

A. Spinal cord
B. Pubic symphysis
C. Ligament
D. Areolar tissue
E. Organ capsule


28. What are the valves which regulates the flow of bile into the intestine?

A. Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses
B. Ducts of Luschka
C. Duct of Wirsung
D. Ampulla of Vater
E. Sphincter of Oddi


29. What do you call a tissue composed of a conglomeration of cells which are tightly packed together, yet which does not have a free surface? An example of such a tissue would be the parenchyma of the adrenal gland.

A. Epithelioid tissue
B. Mesothelium
C. Endothelium
D. Transitional
E. Pseudostratified


30. What is another term for the valve of Kerckring?

A. Lacteal
B. Crypts of Lieberkuhn
C. Plicae circulares
D. Striated border
E. Villi


31. Which of the following is NOT considered neuroglia?

A. Astrocytes
B. Ependymal cells
C. Oligodendrocytes
D. Microglia
E. Schwann cells


32. What type of tissue lines the upper esophagus?

A. Simple squamous epithelium
B. Simple cuboidal epithelium
C. Simple columnar epithelium
D. Stratified squamous epithelium
E. Transitional epithelium


33. Which cell is a resting osteoblast?

A. Chondrocyte
B. Chondroblast
C. Osteocyte
D. Osteoclast
E. Bone lining cell


34. What forms the skeleton of the fetus?

A. Elastic cartilage
B. Hyaline cartilage
C. Fibrocartilage
D. Spongy bone
E. Compact bone


35. Which type of neuron is multipolar?

A. Motor neurons
B. Interneurons
C. Sensory neurons
D. Motor neurons and Interneurons
E. All of the above


36. Which cell is the most abundant cell in the epidermis?

A. Langerhans cell
B. Keratinocyte
C. Melanocyte
D. Merkel cell
E. Fibroblast


37. Which cells secrete pepsinogen?

A. Parietal cells
B. Oxyntic cells
C. Chief cells
D. Mucous neck cells
E. Parietal cells and Oxyntic cells


38. What are the small tunnels seen in bone?

A. Canaliculi
B. Sharpey's fibers
C. Trabeculae
D. Tome's process
E. Lacuna


39. Which type of cartilage is the most abundant?

A. Hyaline cartilage
B. Elastic cartilage
C. Fibrocartilage
D. Hyaline cartilage and elastic cartilage equally
E. Elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage equally


40. What is the connective tissue covering which surrounds cartilage?

A. Perimysium
B. Periosteum
C. Perichondrium
D. Perineurium
E. Endosteum


41. Which fiber type has a lot of mitochondria?

A. Red fibers
B. White fibers
C. Intermediate fibers
D. All of the above
E. None of the above


42. Which cell is a macrophage found in the skin?

A. Kupffer cells
B. Histiocyte
C. Dust cell
D. Langerhans cell
E. Microglia


43. What structure contributes to the cells cytoskeleton?

A. Ribosomes
B. Peroxisome
C. Microfilaments
D. Centrioles
E. Nucleoli


44. What is the glomerulus?

A. Afferent arteriole
B. Efferent arteriole
C. Capillary tuft
D. Peritubular capillaries
E. Vasa recta


45. What are neurons in the retina?

A. Unipolar
B. Pseudounipolar
C. Bipolar
D. Multipolar
E. Unipolar and Pseudounipolar


46. The colloquialism "gray matter" refers to somebody using his intellect or reasoning ability. In reality, what is gray matter?

A. Meninges
B. Myelinated nerve fibers
C. Cell bodies
D. Nodes of Ranvier
E. Neurofilaments


47. What type of tissue is a tendon composed of?

A. Mucous connective tissue
B. Mesenchyme
C. Loose irregular connective tissue
D. Dense irregular connective tissue
E. Dense regular connective tissue


48. What is a gland called if the secretory portion is flask shaped?

A. Simple gland
B. Compound gland
C. Tubular
D. Alveolar
E. Tubuloalveolar


49. Which type of neuron is most abundant?

A. Sensory neurons
B. Motor neurons
C. Interneurons
D. Sensory neurons and Motor neurons
E. All of the above


50. What covers the visible portion of a tooth ?

A. Pulp cavity
B. Dentin
C. Dental pulp
D. Cementum
E. Enamel


51. What is the term for the process used by cells for the transport in of particulate matter?

A. Endocytosis
B. Exocytosis
C. Pinocytosis
D. Phagocytosis
E. Active transport


52. What type of muscle is specialized for contraction?

A. Skeletal muscle
B. Cardiac muscle
C. Smooth muscle
D. Skeletal muscle and Cardiac muscle
E. Skeletal muscle, Cardiac muscle and Smooth muscle


53. Where is mesothelium found?

A. Mucosa
B. Sub mucosa
C. Muscularis externa
D. Serosa
E. Adventitia


54. What type of glands are the ceruminous glands?

A. Sebaceous glands
B. Eccrine sweat gland
C. Endocrine gland
D. Apocrine sweat gland
E. Oil gland


55. Which microscope makes things appear three dimensional?

A. Simple microscope
B. Compound microscope
C. Phase contrast microscope
D. Dissection microscope
E. Transmission electron microscope


56. Which meninx covers the brain intimately?

A. Dura mater
B. Arachnoid
C. Pia mater
D. Dura mater and Arachnoid
E. All of the above


57. What forms the brush border?

A. Microvilli
B. Stereocilia
C. Cilia
D. Keratinization
E. Both a and b


58. Which sensory receptor in the skin is NOT encapsulated?

A. Ruffini endings
B. Free nerve endings
C. Pacinian corpuscles
D. Meissner's corpuscles
E. Merkel cells


59. Where is the site of protein synthesis?

A. Ribosomes
B. Peroxisome
C. Microfilaments
D. Centrioles
E. Nucleoli


60. What is the lining of the inner bone on the side which abuts the medullary cavity?

A. Perimysium
B. Periosteum
C. Perichondrium
D. Perineurium
E. Endosteum


61. Which fiber type is seen in smooth muscle?

A. Red fibers
B. White fibers
C. Intermediate fibers
D. All of the above
E. None of the above


62. Which type of cartilage forms the skeleton of the fetus?

A. Hyaline cartilage
B. Elastic cartilage
C. Fibrocartilage
D. All of the above
E. None of the above


63. What type of muscle contains centrally placed nuclei?

A. Smooth muscle
B. Cardiac muscle
C. Skeletal muscle
D. Smooth muscle and Cardiac muscle
E. Smooth muscle, Cardiac muscle and Skeletal muscle


64. Which of the following layers comprise the skin?

A. Epidermis
B. Dermis
C. Hypodermis
D. Epidermis and Dermis
E. Dermis and Hypodermis


65. Which organelle is involved in lipid metabolism?

A. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
B. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
C. Lysosome
D. Golgi apparatus
E. Mitochondria


66. What type of tissue makes up the "Adam's apple"?

A. Hyaline cartilage
B. Fibrocartilage
C. Elastic cartilage
D. Hyaline cartilage and Fibrocartilage
E. Hyaline cartilage and Elastic cartilage


67. What are motor neurons?

A. Unipolar
B. Pseudounipolar
C. Bipolar
D. Multipolar
E. Unipolar and Pseudounipolar


68. What type of epithelium forms the epidermis?

A. Simple squamous epithelium
B. Simple cuboidal epithelium
C. Simple columnar epithelium
D. Stratified squamous epithelium
E. Pseudostratified epithelium


69. Which type of cartilage forms the epiphyseal growth plate?

A. Hyaline cartilage
B. Elastic cartilage
C. Fibro-cartilage
D. All of the above
E. None of the above


70. What percent of the matrix of cartilage is water?

A. 0
B. 10-40
C. 40-60
D. 60-80
E. 80-100


71. What type of tissue lines most of the gastrointestinal tract?

A. Simple squamous epithelium
B. Simple cuboidal epithelium
C. Simple columnar epithelium
D. Stratified squamous epithelium
E. Transitional epithelium


72. Which of the following is NOT a function of the liver?

A. Conversion of glucose into glycogen
B. Storage of glycogen
C. Storage of bile
D. Storage of fat soluble vitamins
E. Cholesterol synthesis


73. Which layer of the epidermis has cells which have keratohyaline granules?

A. Stratum basale
B. Stratum spinosum
C. Stratum granulosum
D. Stratum lucidum
E. Stratum corneum


74. What are the basophilic clusters of ribosomes and rough endoplasmic reticulum seen in neurons called?

A. Ganglion
B. Perikaryon
C. Astrocyte
D. Nissl
E. Terminal bouton


75. What is the cell body of a neuron called?

A. Ganglion
B. Soma
C. Astrocyte
D. Nissl
E. Terminal bouton


76. Which of the following is composed of smooth muscle?

A. Upper esophagus
B. Heart
C. Tongue
D. Biceps muscle
E. Walls of the visceral organs


77. During the preparation of a routine H&E slide, what allows the tissue to hold its form?

A. Fixation
B. Embedding in paraffin
C. Staining
D. Slicing
E. Dehydration


78. What is a characteristic of the cells in the epidermis of the skin?

A. Microvilli
B. Stereocilia
C. Cilia
D. Keratinization
E. Microvilli and Stereocilia


79. What is woven bone?

A. Cancellous bone
B. Compact bone
C. Dense bone
D. Immature bone
E. Spongy bone


80. What do you call the space where a chondrocyte sits in?

A. Space of Disse
B. Space of Mall
C. Vacuole
D. Lacuna
E. Howship's Lacuna


81. What is the portion of the nail which is underneath skin?

A. Lunula
B. Eponychium
C. Matrix
D. Nail bed
E. Root


82. Which cell is a macrophage found in the central nervous system?

A. Kupffer cells
B. Histiocyte
C. Dust cell
D. Langerhans cell
E. Microglia


83. Which cell is the mature bone cell?

A. Chondrocyte
B. Chondroblast
C. Osteocyte
D. Osteoclast
E. Bone lining cell


84. What type of epithelium appears stratified, but is not?

A. Epithelioid tissue
B. Mesothelium
C. Endothelium
D. Transitional
E. Pseudostratified


85. Which organelle contains digestive enzymes?

A. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
B. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
C. Lysosomes
D. Golgi apparatus
E. Mitochondria


86. Which structures are part of the portal triad?

A. Portal vein
B. Hepatic artery
C. Central vein
D. Sinusoids
E. Portal vein and Hepatic artery


87. During the preparation of a routine H&E slide, how is the tissue preserved?

A. Fixation
B. Embedding in paraffin
C. Staining
D. Slicing
E. Dehydration


88. During the preparation of a routine H&E slide, what allows the tissue to be visualized?

A. Fixation
B. Embedding in paraffin
C. Staining
D. Slicing
E. Dehydration


89. Which type of cartilage forms the hammer, anvil and stirrup?

A. Hyaline cartilage
B. Elastic cartilage
C. Fibro cartilage
D. All of the above
E. None of the above


90. Which of the following is an element of the central nervous system?

A. Receptors
B. Brachial plexus
C. Sciatic nerve
D. Ganglia
E. Spinal cord


91. What is the limiting membrane of a cell?

A. Plasmalemma
B. Glycocalyx
C. Protoplasm
D. Cristae
E. Ground substance


92. What is the functional unit of the liver?

A. Lobule
B. Portal triad
C. Central vein
D. Hepatocyte
E. Sinusoids

Ans: A

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