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Stone Age And Indus Valley Civilization (Sindhu Ghati Sabhayta)


STONE AGE ( 7600-3300 BC)

Ancient age generally starts from the stone age. Stone age is also known as South Asian Stone Age. The stone age is divided into three parts:
1. Paleolithic Age
2. Mesolithic Age
3. Neolithic Age
The stone age is divided into three parts:

  • Rise of Homo Sapiens in South Asia has been Found in the caves of Batadombalna and Belilena in Sri Lanka.
  • Neolithic age starts from Mehargarh (West Pakistan)


Homo Erectus is an ancient, extinct species of hominid. (hominid- Early Human or Starting of Human from Chimps)
Homo Erectus lived in Northern Punjab in Pakistan near Soan River.
Beginning Tools used by Homo Erectus:
- Biface Hand Axe
- Use of Achelian
- Chopper-Chopping Tools

homo sapiens


  • Proof Found in Cave sites in Sri Lanka
  • They also lived in Belan of South UP.
  • Famous for Paleolithic Rock Art, Cave Paintings.

Tools Used by Homo Sapiens:
- Chert
- Jasper
- Quartzite

tools used by homosapiens
Tools Used by Homo Sapiens


It’s the final stage of cultural evolution or technological developments among ancient humans.
Neolithic Age Tools
Neolithic Age Tools
It was characterized by stone tools used for polishing, grinding, chipped stone for hunting.

Evidence in India:
- Lahuradewa at Middle Ganga Region
- Maharashtra
- Bhopal


evolution of man




Indus valley civilization is also known as Harappa civilization or Bronze Age Civilization.
Founder : Dayaram Sahni in 1921 AD on order of Sir John Marshal . Dayaram Sahni was born in Pakistan.

Main Center: Mohanjodaro, kalibanga, lothal, dholavera, rakhigadi and Harappa.

- Afghanistan
- Shoturgoyi
- Mundigaok
- Harappa
- Mohanjoddaro
- Chanhudro
- Sutkaged nor
- Balakot
- Kot dijo
- Allahdinno
- Gujrat
- Harayana
- Punjab
- Maharashtra
- Uttar Pradesh
- Jammu Kashmir
- Rajasthan


  1. Uses bricks for making houses.
  2. Roads were made at 90 degree angles.
  3. Mohenjo-Daro was discovered by Rakhal Das Benarji.
  4. Mohanjodaro had high buildings than Harappa.
  5. Mohanjodaro had great bath.
  6. Harappa have 6 food stores.
  7. Agriculture and animal husbandry is the main source of income.

Favorite Animal: Humped Bull
Favorite Crop: Wheat
humped bull and wheat

Script of Sindhu Ghati :


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  1. Cotton was firstly yield here in the world.
  2. Cotton is also known as Sinden in Greek and this civilization is also known as Sindan Civilization.
  3. Worship of Pashupatinath, Mahadeva, Linga, Yoni, Earth, Trees and Animals.

Scheme and Syllabus of HP Forest Range Officer 2017 PDF


1. The candidates who qualify the Written Examination will be called for physical Standard Test, and the candidates, five times of the number of vacancies will be declared successful in the written examination.

2. The written examination shall include three compulsory and two optional papers.

3. A candidate shall specify in his/her application form the optional subjects he/she desire to take, but may intimate any change of intention to the Secretary H.P. Public Service Commission not later than the last date for the receipt of application.

4. A Candidate shall answer the Optional papers in English or Hindi only which is at his/her option choice.

5. No candidate shall be considered to have qualified the written examination unless he/she obtains at least 40% marks in each compulsory papers and 45% marks in aggregate.

6. Provided that in case there is a tie between or amongst the candidates on account of having obtained equal minimum qualifying marks in the written examination all such candidates shall be called for the viva-voce test.

7. The names of the candidates who are called for viva-voce test shall be arranged in order of merit on the basis of the aggregate marks obtained in the written examination.

8. The ranking will be decided on the basis of the marks obtained in all compulsory and optional papers excluding marks of English and Hindi papers though it would be necessary to obtain 40% marks in each optional paper to qualify.

9. The final ranking shall be determined on the basis of marks obtained by the candidates in the main examination as well as interview.

10. In the event of a tie, order of merit shall be determined in accordance with the highest marks secured by a candidate in viva-voce and in case the marks in the viva-voce of the candidates tie, then the order of merit shall be decided in accordance with the highest marks obtained by such candidates in the aggregate of compulsory subjects.

11. If a candidate’s hand writing is not legible, a deduction which may be considerable shall be made on this account from the marks otherwise accruing to him/her.

12. Credit will be given for good English/ Hindi including orderly, effective and exact expression combined with the economy of words in all subjects of the examination and not only in subjects which are especially devoted to English/ Hindi.

13. All papers shall be of three hours duration.


The examination shall consist three compulsory and two optional papers as follows:-

General Knowledge = 100 Marks

General knowledge including knowledge of current event and of such matters of every day observation experience in their scientific aspects as is expected from an educated person who has not made special study of any scientific subject. The paper will also include questions on Indian Polity including the political system and the Constitution of India, History of India and Geography of nature which the candidate should be able to answer without special study.

General English = 100 Marks
The question paper will be designated to assess the candidate’s understanding of his power to write English correctly and idiomatically. It will also include questions to test the candidates knowledge of grammar, idiom and usage. Passages will be set for summary or précis. Besides there will be an essay on current topics on State, National, International events. The essay will carry 30 marks. Summary on précis 20 marks and other shall be of 50 marks.

 (i) Essay on current topics on State/ National/ International event 30 marks
 (ii) Translation of an English Passage into Hindi 10 marks
 (iii) Explanation of Hindi Prose and Poetry in the same language 20 marks
 (iv) Idioms/connections comprehension and grammar etc. 40 marks

Optional Subjects:-
Agriculture, Botany, Chemistry, Computer Application/Science, Agriculture Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Computer Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering. Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Science, Forestry, Geology, Horticulture, Mathematics, Physics, Statistics Veterinary Science & Zoology .

Candidates are required to offer two of the above subjects. Total number of questions in the question papers of optional papers will be eight. All questions will carry equal marks. Each paper will be divided into two parts viz Part-I and Part-II and each part shall contain four questions. Out of eight questions five questions are to be attempted. One question from each part will be compulsory. The candidates will be required to answer three other questions out of the remaining six questions , taking atleast one question from each part. In this way atleast two questions will be attempted from each part i.e. one compulsory question plus one more.

Note-I:- The standard of examination in these subjects will be that of a Bachelor’s degree.
Note-II:- No candidate shall be allowed to take more than one subject from the following:-
i) Agriculture, Agriculture Engineering and Veterinary Science
ii) Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
iii) Computer Application/Science & Computer Engineering.
iv) Electrical Engineering and Electronic Engineering.
v) Mathematics and Statistics.

Interview and Selection:
The candidates who will qualify written examination will be called for physical standard test, and the candidates, five times will be declared successful in the written examination. The total number of candidates called for interview will be three time of total vacancies. The candidates will be interviewed by the Commission who will have before them a record of their career. The object of the interview is to assess the personal suitability of the candidate for the post of H.P. Forest Service (ACF). The test is intended to judge mental caliber of the candidate. In broad terms, this is really an assessment not only of candidate’s intellectual qualities but also his social traits and interest in current affairs. Some of the qualities to be adjudged are mental alertness, critical powers of assimilation, care and logical exposition, balance of judgment, Variety & depth of interests, ability for social cohesion & leadership, intellectual and moral integrity.


HP Forest Range Officer 2017 Syllabus PDF


Ecology and its relevance to man. Natural resources, their management and conservation. Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production. Climatic elements as factors of crop growth, impact of changing environment on cropping pattern, plants as indicators of environments. Environmental pollution and associated hazards to crops, animals and humans.

Cropping patterns in different agro-climatic zones of the country - impact of high yielding and short duration varieties on shifts in cropping patterns. Concepts and principles of multiple cropping - multistory, relay and inter-cropping and their importance in relation to food production;

Package of practices for production of important cereals, pulses, oilseeds, fiber, sugar and commercial crops grown during Kharif and Rabi seasons in different regions of the country.

Weeds, their characteristics, dissemination and association with various crops; their multiplication; cultural, biological, chemical and integrated control of weeds.

Processes and factors of soil formation, classification of Indian soils including modern concepts, mineral and organic constituents of soil and their role in maintaining soil productivity.
Problem soils, extent and distribution in India and their reclamation. Essential plant nutrients and other beneficial elements in soils and plants, their occurrence; factors affecting their distribution, availability functions and recycling in soils; symbiotic and non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation.
Principles of soil fertility and its evaluation for judicial fertilizer use.

Watershed management. Soil Conservation planning on watershed basis. Erosion and run of management in hilly, foothills and valley lands - processes and factors affecting them. Dry lands agriculture, its problems and crop production techniques. Water use efficiency in relation to crop production, criteria for scheduling irrigation, ways and means of reducing runoff losses of irrigation water. Farm management, scope, importance and characteristics, farm planning and budgeting. Economics of different types of farming systems. Agriculture extension–its importance and role. Extension techniques, methods of evaluation of extension programs, socio-economic survey and status of big, small and marginal farmers training programs for extension workers. Training and extension programs

Heredity and variation, Mendel’s Law of inheritance, Chromosomal theory of inheritance.
Cytoplasmic inheritance, Quantitative characters.
Origin and domestication of field crop. Morphology and patterns of variations in varieties and related species of important field crops. Causes and utilization of variations in crop improvement.

Application of the principles of plant breeding to the improvement of major field crops, methods of breeding of self and cross pollinated crops. Introduction, selection, hybridisation,
heterosis and its exploitation. Male sterility and self-incompatibility, utilization of mutation and polyploidy in breeding.
Seed and seed technology, importance, types and seeds and their production, processing and testing of seeds of crops and seed certification regulation.

Climatic requirements and cultivation of major fruits, plants and vegetable crops with special reference to commercial fruits and vegetables, the package of practices and the scientific basis for same. Handling and Marketing problems of fruits and vegetables, principal methods of preservation of important fruits and vegetable products, processing techniques and equipment. Role of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition, landscape and floriculture, including raising of ornamental plants and design and lay out of lawns and gardens.

Diseases and pests of fields, vegetable, orchard and plantation crops of India and measures to control these. Causes and classification of plant diseases. Principles of plant disease control including exclusion, eradication, immunization and production. Biological control of pests and diseases. Integrated management of pests and diseases. Pesticides and their formulations, plant protection equipment, their care and maintenance.

Growth and Development of Vegetable Crops.—Physiology of dormancy and germination of vegetable seeds and tubers. Tissue culture techniques. Post-harvest technology.—Maturity and ripping process and factors affecting them. Quality evaluation for fresh market and processing. Factors responsible in deterioration of harvested fruits and vegetables, role of growth substances and irradiation in decay control, respiration and transpiration, storage of fresh fruits and vegetables, theories of chilling injury and symptoms of chilly injured. Modified gas storage.


1. Microbiology.—(Viruses and Bacteria). Their structure, classification, reproduction and physiology. Mode of infection of Viruses and Bacteria. Role of microbes in industry and agriculture.
2. Pathology.—Knowledge of common and important plant diseases caused by fungi and bacteria (Special reference to diseases common in Himachal Pradesh), mode of infection of fungi and control of disease.
3. Plant Groups.—Classification, structure, reproduction, life history and economic importance of Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms (including comparative study of various groups). A general knowledge of distribution of important genera of principal subdivision of above groups in India (Emphasis of Western Himalayas).
4. Morphology, Anatomy, Embryology and Taxonomy of Angiosperms.—Morphology and Anatomy of Stem, Root, Leaf (excluding anomalous growth). Tissue and Tissue system. Structure of Anther and Ovule. Fertilization and development of seed. Classification of 

Angiosperms, Principles of Nomenclature. Modern trends in Taxonomy. A general knowledge of following families of Angiosperms: Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae, Rosaceae, Leguminosea, Cucurbitaceae, Umbelliferae, Asteraceae, Solanaceae, Lamiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Liliaceae and Gramineae.

1. Cell Biology.—Cell as a unit of structure and function. Ultrastructure of Cell and its various organelles. Chromosomes – the physical and chemical structure, its behaviour during mitosis and meiosis.
2. Genetics and Evolution.—Pre and Post Mandelian concept of Genetics. Development of Gene concept. Genetic code. Nucleic acids, their structure and role in reproduction and protein biosynthesis, Mutations. Role of mutations in plant breeding (wheat, gram, tobacco, cotton only). Organic evolution – evidences and theories.
3. Physiology.—Photosynthesis, Absorption and conduction of water, Transpiration, Mineral absorption, Role of elements, Enzymes, Respiration, Fermentation, Growth, Photoperiodism and Vernalisation. Plant Hormones – their type and role. Dormancy of seeds.
4. Plant Ecology. –Its scope, plant communities, plant succession, factors. Applied ecology with special reference to pollution and conservation.
5. Economic Botany.—Importance of plants, Important plants yielding food, fibre, wood and drugs.


(Note:- The student will be expected to solve simple structural, synthetic, mechanistic, conceptual and numerical problems based on and relevant to the syllabus. They are also expected to be acquainted with the S.I. units)

Atomic Structure and Chemical bonding.—Quantum theory, Schrodinger equation, particle in a box, hydrogen atom. Hydrogen molecule. Elements of valence bond and molecular orbital theories (idea of bonding, non-bonding and anti-bonding orbitals). Sigma and Pi bonds.

Chemical Kinetics.—Kinetics of reactions involving free radicals, Kinetics of polymerisation and photochemical reactions.

Surface chemistry and catalysis.—Physical absorption, isotherms, surface area determination, heterogenous catalysis, acid bases and enzyme catalysis.
Electrochemistry.—Lomic equilibra; theory of strong electrolytes; Debye, Huckel theory of activity coefficients; electrolytic conduction, galvanic cell, membrane equilibrium and fuel cells. Electrolysis and overvoltage.

Thermodynamics.—Laws of Thermodynamics and application to physiochemical processes systems of variable compositions.

Electronic structure of transition metal complexes.—Crystal field theory and modifications, complexes of Pi-acceptor ligands, organometallic compounds of transition metals.

Lanthanides Actinides.— Separation Chemistry, Oxidation state, magnetic properties. Reaction in non-aqueous solvents.

HPPSC Naib Tehsildar 2012 Question Paper PDF Pre Download

HPPSC 2012 Naib Tehsildar Preliminary question paper pdf download for Himachal Pradesh. HPPSC Naib Tehsildar Previous Papers 2017 HPPSC Naib Tehsildar Previous Papers are Available Here This is A Good Place to the Candidates who are Seeking for the HPPSC Naib Tehsildar Previous Papers.

Below Download Available Links for HPPSC Naib Tehsildar Prelims Previous Year Papers / Himachal Pradesh PSC Tehsildar Mains Old Papers / HP Public Service Commission Class II Model Papers / Download HPPSC Tehsildar Class A Sample Papers / Himachal Pradesh Naib Tehsildar Solved Papers / Get HP Tehsildar Prelims and Mains Last Year Papers / Free Download Previous Papers of HPPSC etc.

Download PDF Question Paper 2012 [4 MB]

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